Broadband acoustic backscattering measurements, advanced high-resolution imaging of fish morphology using CT scans and phase-contrast x rays (in addition to traditional x rays), and associated scattering modeling using the images have been conducted involving alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), a swimbladder-bearing fish. A greater-than-octave bandwidth (40-95 kHz) signal was used to insonify live, individual, adult alewife that were tethered while being rotated in 1-deg increments over all angles in two planes of rotation (lateral and dorsal/ventral). These data, in addition to providing the orientation dependence of the scattering over a continuous band of frequencies, were also used (after pulse compression) to identify dominant scattering features of the fish (including the skull and swimbladder). The x-ray and CT scan images of the swimbladder were digitized and incorporated into two scattering models: (1) Kirchhoff-ray mode (KRM) model [Clay and Horne, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1661-1668 (1994)] and (2) conformal-mapping-based Fourier matching method (FMM), which has recently been extended to finite-length bodies [Reeder and Stanton, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116. 729-746 (2004)]. Comparisons between the scattering predictions and data demonstrate the utility of the CT scan imagery for use in scattering models, as it provided a means for rapidly and noninvasively measuring the fish morphology in three dimensions and at high resolution. In addition to further validation of the KRM model, the potential of the new FMM formulation was demonstrated, which is a versatile approach, valid over a wide range of shapes, all frequencies and all angles of orientation.