Horizontal refraction of propagating sound due to seafloor scours over a range-dependent layered bottom on the New Jersey shelf. Academic Article uri icon


  • Three-dimensional propagation effects of low frequency sound from 100 to 400 Hz caused by seafloor topography and range-dependent bottom structure over a 20 km range along the New Jersey shelf are investigated using a hybrid modeling approach. Normal modes are used in the vertical dimension, and a parabolic-equation approximate model is applied to solve the horizontal refraction equation. Examination of modal amplitudes demonstrates the effect of environmental range dependence on modes trapped in the water column, modes interacting with the bottom, and modes trapped in the bottom. Using normal mode ray tracing, topographic features responsible for three-dimensional effects of horizontal refraction and focusing are identified. These effects are observed in the measurements from the Shallow Water 2006 experiment. Specifically, signals from a pair of fixed sources recorded on a horizontal line array sitting on the seafloor show an intensification caused by horizontal focusing due to the seabed topography of 4 dB along the array.

publication date

  • April 2012