Crustal Magnetization of Brothers Volcano, New Zealand, Measured by Autonomous Underwater Vehicles: Geophysical Expression of a Submarine Hydrothermal System
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Near-bottom magnetic anomaly data have been acquired using autonomous underwater vehicles at Brothers volcano, southern Kermadec arc, New Zealand. Crustal magnetization for the study area was obtained by inverting the magnetic data and shows a strong correlation between areas of low magnetization and four hydrothermal fields, one of which was unknown prior to our surveys. The magnetization pattern is consistent with a model of discrete, individual zones of fluid upflow focused along caldera ring faults that provide preferred pathways for the ascent of the hydrothermal fluids. Differences in the amplitude of the magnetization over the vent fields appear to correlate with age and temperature variations of the hydrothermal fields.