The binding of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) to inactive (noncarbamylated) sites of the enzyme RuBP carboxylase in vivo was investigated in Spinacia oleracea and Helianthus annuus. The concentrations of RuBP and inactive sites were determined in leaf tissue as a function of time after a change to darkness. RuBP concentrations fell rapidly after the change to darkness and were approximately equal to the concentration of inactive sites after 60 s. Variations in the concentration of inactive sites, which were induced by differences in the light intensity before the light-dark transition, correlated with the concentration of RuBP between 60 and 120 s after the change to darkness. These data are discussed as evidence that RuBP binds to inactive sites of RuBP carboxylase in vivo. After the concentration of RuBP fell below that of inactive sites (at times longer than 60 s of darkness), the decline in RuBP was logarithmic with time. This would be expected if the dissociation of RuBP from inactive sites controlled the decline in RuBP concentration. These data were used to estimate the rate constant for dissociation of RuBP from inactive sites in vivo.