Adipose fins are enigmatic appendages found between the dorsal and caudal fins of some teleostean fishes. Long thought to be vestigial, degenerate second dorsal fins, remnants of the primitive gnathostome condition, adipose fins have since been recognized as novel morphologies. Unique among the fins of extant fishes, adipose fins have uniformly been described as passive structures, with no associated musculature. Here we provide the first description of a musculoskeletal linkage in an adipose fin, identified in the sun catfish Horabagrus brachysoma. Modified supracarinalis posterior muscles insert from the dorsal midline anterior to the adipose fin by tendons onto the fin base. An additional pair of posterior adipose-fin muscles also inserts upon the fin base and lay posterolateral to the fin, superficial to the axial muscle. This musculoskeletal linkage is an evolutionary innovation, a novel mechanism for controlling adipose-fin movement. These muscles appear to exemplify two approaches by which fins evolve to be actively controlled. We hypothesize that the anterior muscles arose through co-option of an existing fin linkage, while the posterior muscles originated as de novo fin muscles. These findings present adipose fins as a rich system within which to explore the evolution of novel vertebrate appendages.