We have introduced the T4 thymidylate synthetase gene, resident in a 2.7-kilobase EcoRI restriction fragment, into an amplification plasmid, pKC30. By regulating expression of this gene from the phage lambda pL promoter within pKC30 in a thyA host containing a temperature-sensitive lambda repressor, the T4 synthetase could be amplified about 200-fold over that after T4 infection. At this stage, a 20-fold purification was required to obtain homogeneous enzyme, mainly by an affinity column procedure. The purified plasmid-amplified T4 synthetase appeared to be identical with the T2 phage synthetase purified from phage-infected Escherichia coli in molecular weight, amino end group analysis, and immunochemical reactivity. The individual nature of the phage and host proteins was revealed by the fact that neither the T2 nor the T4 enzyme reacted with antibody to the E. coli synthetase, nor did antibody to the phage enzymes react with the E. coli synthetase. These differences were corroborated by DNA hybridization experiments, which revealed the absence of apparent homology between the T4 and E. coli synthetase genes. The techniques and genetic constructions described support the feasibility of employing similar amplification methods to prepare highly purified thymidylate synthetases from other sources.