DsrA is an 87-nt untranslated RNA that regulates both the global transcriptional silencer and nucleoid protein H-NS and the stationary phase and stress response sigma factor RpoS (sigmas). We demonstrate that DsrA acts via specific RNA:RNA base pairing interactions at the hns locus to antagonize H-NS translation. We also give evidence that supports a role for RNA:RNA interactions at the rpoS locus to enhance RpoS translation. Negative regulation of hns by DsrA is achieved by the RNA:RNA interaction blocking translation of hns RNA. In contrast, results suggest that positive regulation of rpoS by DsrA occurs by formation of an RNA structure that activates a cis-acting translational operator. Sequences within DsrA complementary to three additional genes, argR, ilvIH, and rbsD, suggest that DsrA is a riboregulator of gene expression that acts coordinately via RNA:RNA interactions at multiple loci.