The way in which actin and myosin II become localized to the contractile ring of dividing cells resulting in cleavage furrow formation and cytokinesis is unknown. While much is known about actin binding proteins and actin localization, little is known about myosin localization. A 53-kDa (53K) polypeptide present in the sea urchin egg binds to myosin II in a nucleotide-dependent manner and mediates its solubility in vitro [Yabkowitz, R., & Burgess, D.R. (1987) J. Cell Biol. 105, 927-936]. The binding site of 53K on the myosin molecule was examined in an effort to understand the mechanism of 53K-induced myosin solubility and its potential function in myosin regulation. Blot overlay and chemical cross-linking techniques utilizing myosin proteolytic fragments indicate that 53K binds to fragments proximal to the head-rod junction of myosin. Fragments distal to the head-rod junction do not bind 53K. In addition, the binding of 53K to myosin largely inhibits protease digestion that produces the head and rod fragments. The binding of 53K to the head-rod domain of myosin may be critical in regulation of myosin conformation, localization, assembly, and ATPase activity.