A variety of peripheral membrane proteins associate dynamically with Golgi membranes during the budding and trafficking of transport vesicles in eukaryotic cells. A monoclonal antibody (AD7) raised against Golgi membranes recognizes a peripheral membrane protein, p200, which associates with vesicles budding off the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Based on preliminary findings, a potential association between p200 and myosin on Golgi membranes was investigated. Immunofluorescence staining of cultured cells under a variety of fixation conditions was carried out using an antibody raised against chick brush border nonmuscle myosin II. We show that, in addition to being found in the cytoplasm or associated with stress fibres, nonmuscle myosin II is also specifically localized on Golgi membranes. Myosin II was also detected on Golgi membranes by immunoblotting and by immunogold labeling at the electron microscopy level where it was found to be concentrated on Golgi-derived vesicles. The association of myosin II with Golgi membranes is dynamic and was found to be enhanced following activation of G proteins. Myosin II staining of Golgi membranes was also disrupted by brefeldin A (BFA). Colocalization of the AD7 and myosin II antibodies at the light and electron microscopy levels led us to investigate the nature of the 200 kDa protein recognized by both antibodies. The 200 kDa protein immunoprecipiated by the AD7 antibody was isolated from MDCK cells and used for microsequencing. Amino acid sequence data enabled us to identify p200 as the heavy chain of nonmuscle myosin IIA. In addition, an extra protein (240 kDa) recognized by the AD7 antibody specifically in extracts of HeLa cells, was sequenced and identified as another actin-binding protein, filamin. These results show that nonmuscle myosin II is associated with Golgi membranes and that the vesicle-associated protein p200, is itself a heavy chain of myosin II.