Locomotor pattern generation is maintained by integration of the intrinsic properties of spinal central pattern generator (CPG) neurons in conjunction with synaptic activity of the neural network. In the lamprey, the spinal locomotor CPG is modulated by 5-HT. On a cellular level, 5-HT presynaptically inhibits synaptic transmission and postsynaptically inhibits a Ca2+-activated K+ current responsible for the slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) that follows action potentials in ventral horn neurons. To understand the contribution of these cellular mechanisms to the modulation of the spinal CPG, we have tested the effect of selective 5-HT analogues against fictive locomotion initiated by bath application of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA). We found that the 5-HT1D agonist, L694-247, dramatically prolongs the frequency of ventral root bursting. Furthermore, we show that L694-247 presynaptically inhibits synaptic transmission without altering postsynaptic Ca2+-activated K+ currents. We also confirm that 5-HT inhibits synaptic transmission at concentrations that modulate locomotion. To examine the mechanism by which selective presynaptic inhibition modulates the frequency of fictive locomotion, we performed voltage- and current-clamp recordings of CPG neurons during locomotion. Our results show that 5-HT decreases glutamatergic synaptic drive within the locomotor CPG during fictive locomotion. Thus we conclude that presynaptic inhibition of neurotransmitter release contributes to 5-HT-mediated modulation of locomotor activity.