Response to endotoxins is an important part of the organismal reaction to Gram-negative bacteria and plays a critical role in sepsis and septic shock, as well as other conditions such as metabolic endotoxemia. Humans are generally more sensitive to endotoxins when compared with experimental animals such as mice. Inflammatory caspases mediate endotoxin-induced IL-1? secretion and lethality in mice, and caspase-4 is an inflammatory caspase that is found in the human, and not mouse, genome. To test whether caspase-4 is involved in endotoxin sensitivity, we developed a transgenic mouse expressing human caspase-4 in its genomic context. Caspase-4 transgenic mice exhibited significantly higher endotoxin sensitivity, as measured by enhanced cytokine secretion and lethality following LPS challenge. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages, we then observed that caspase-4 can support activation of caspase-1 and secretion of IL-1? and IL-18 in response to priming signals (LPS or Pam3CSK4) alone, without the need for second signals to stimulate the assembly of the inflammasome. These findings indicate that the regulation of caspase-1 activity by human caspase-4 could represent a unique mechanism in humans, as compared with laboratory rodents, and may partially explain the higher sensitivity to endotoxins observed in humans. Regulation of the expression, activation, or activity of caspase-4 therefore represents targets for systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, septic shock, and related disorders.