Three cell surface molecules, designated LFA-1, LFA-2, and LFA-3 were identified by mAbs selected for their ability to block cytolysis by an OKT4+, HLA-DR-specific CTL line. The LFA mAbs block all CTL and proliferative functions studied. In addition, anti-LFA-1 mAbs inhibit NK-mediated cytolysis. By analogy with murine LFA-1, human LFA-1 may be involved in the adhesion stage of cellular interactions. LFA-2, the SRBC receptor molecule, appears to be a T cell function-specific molecule. We have not yet established whether LFA-2 participates in antigen recognition or whether it is involved in antigen-non-specific interactions. The anti-LFA-3 mAb specifically blocks function by binding to the target cells, implying that LFA-3 may be a target ligand for an effector-specific receptor. The CTL-target interaction involves a number of steps, including antigen recognition, cell adhesion, and delivery of the lethal hit . The LFA antigens show the complexity of this process at the molecular level. The anti-LFA monoclonal antibodies will be useful probes into the T cell immune response and may prove clinically relevant, both diagnostically and therapeutically.