Incoherent structured illumination improves optical sectioning and contrast in multiphoton super-resolution microscopy. Academic Article uri icon


  • Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging in thick, semi-transparent biological specimens is hindered by light scattering, which increases background and degrades both contrast and optical sectioning. We describe a simple method that mitigates these issues, improving image quality in our recently developed two-photon instant structured illumination microscope without requiring any hardware modifications to the instrument. By exciting the specimen with three laterally-structured, phase-shifted illumination patterns and post-processing the resulting images, we digitally remove both scattered and out-of-focus emissions that would otherwise contaminate our raw data. We demonstrate the improved performance of our approach in biological samples, including pollen grains, primary mouse aortic endothelial cells cultured in a three-dimensional collagen matrix and live tumor-like cell spheroids.

publication date

  • February 23, 2015