When intact synaptosomes were incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP, maximal protein phosphorylation was attained 2 min after the start of incubation. Protein phosphorylation under basal conditions was dependent on external Ca2+, and the dominant peak of phosphorylation was a 50-kd protein. Incubation of intact synaptosomes in the presence of 3-6 mM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) caused a markedly enhanced phosphorylation of high molecular weight proteins of 90, 100, 130, and 180 kd, with no increase in the 50 or 38 kd proteins. This effect of 4-AP was dependent on external calcium ions in the incubation medium. The 4-AP effect on the high molecular weight proteins was also found in synaptosomal plasma membranes isolated from the synaptosomes. Tetraethylammonium (TEA) ions did not produce this enhancement of phosphorylation.