In a previous study, fluorescence labeling of a plasmalemmal ATPase protein with the 5F10 monoclonal antibody revealed prominent antigen in the cerebellar molecular layer surrounding the somata and dendrites of Purkinje cells. In the present study, this antibody labeled with silver enhanced nano-sized gold particles on semithin plastic sections revealed a clearly demarcated plasma membrane outlining the somata and entire dendritic arbors of Purkinje cells including their spines. Ultrastructural analysis of horseradish peroxidase preparations showed reaction product along the plasmalemma and extending on to the sub-plasmalemmal endoplasmic reticulum. In the granular layer, somata of granule cells were reactive, as were their dendritic extensions into glomeruli where reactive claws surrounded voids formed by mossy fiber rosettes. Somata and dendrites of cerebellar nuclear cells also had reactive zones that were limited to the plasma membrane and a narrow zone of the sub-plasmalemmal endoplasmic reticulum. Comparative labeling of this protein and P channel protein revealed similar plasmalemmal locations. This study shows that a specific calcium ATPase pump protein is located on the plasmalemma of certain types of cerebellar neurons. The ultrastructural distribution of calcium pump and P channel antibodies occurred in punctate sites along the plasma membrane of dendrites and spines of Purkinje cells. The close association between P-type calcium channels and the plasma membrane calcium pump is consistent with rapid extrusion of intracellular calcium from neurons endowed with large numbers of voltage-gated calcium channels.