Juvenile hormone-like effects of retinoic acid in insect metamorphosis, embryogenesis and reproduction
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Retinoic acid exerted juvenilizing effect on the last instar larvae of bugs, Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.), Dysdercus cingulatus (F.) and on freshly moulted pupae of Tenebrio molitor (L.) when applied in doses ranging from 0.003 ng to 3 mu g per specimen. Doses higher than 0.3 mu g per specimen were toxic for all tested species. Larvae of P. apterus were responding to retinoic acid only when it was applied by injection, other species were also sensitive to topical treatments. The acid applied to the eggs caused embryonic malformations and further exhibited the capacity to restore reproduction in the allatectomized adults of P. apterus and D. cingulatus. Doses of about 0.003 mu g per female induced deposition of fertile eggs which provided normal progeny, and also stimulated synthesis of vitelogenins.