An ecological assessment of bisphenol-A: evidence from comparative biology. Academic Article uri icon


  • This review assesses the effects of environmental concentrations of bisphenol-A (BPA) on wildlife. Water concentrations of BPA vary tremendously due to proximity to point and non-point sources, but reported concentrations in stream/river water samples are less than 21 microg/L, and concentrations in landfill leacheate are less than 17.2mg/L. Extensive evidence indicates that BPA induces feminization during gonadal ontogeny of fishes, reptiles, and birds, but in all cases the amount of BPA necessary to cause such ontogenetic disruption exceeds concentrations in the environment. Extensive evidence also exists that adult exposure to environmental concentrations of BPA is detrimental to spermatogenetic endpoints and stimulates vitellogenin synthesis in model species of fish. Most of the reported effects of BPA on vertebrate wildlife species can be attributed to BPA acting as an estrogen receptor agonist, but mechanisms of disruption in invertebrates are less certain. A comparison of measured BPA environmental concentrations with chronic values suggests that no significant margin of safety exists for the protection of aquatic communities against the toxicity of BPA. Further studies should examine the most vulnerable vertebrate and invertebrate species.

publication date

  • August 2007