Connections of two telencephalic vocal control nuclei, the hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudale (HVc), and robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA), were investigated in adult canaries. Methods used were transport of horseradish peroxidase and 3H-adenosine and silver staining of degenerating axons. Three nuclei project to HVc: medial nucleus magnocellularis of the anterior neostriatum (MAN), nucleus interfacialis (NIf) of midneostriatum, and nucleus uvaeformis (Uva) of the diecephalon. Uva also projects to NIf. NIf and Uva have not been described previously. HVc projects to area X of lobus parolfactorius, to RA, and to field Avalanche of hyperstriatum ventrale. Nucleus RA receives projections from HVc and from lateral MAN. All these projections are ipsilateral. No gross male/female differences were apparent in the projections to and from HVc. Uptake of HRP by cell somata in HVc following localized injections of this substance into RA or HVc suggests that HVc is composed of rostrocaudally organized clusters of cells, with little lateral communication between them.