A proposed neural pathway for vocalization in South African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis. Academic Article uri icon


  • Vocalizations of South African clawed frogs are produced by contractions of laryngeal muscles innervated by motor neurons of the caudal medulla (within cranial nerve nucleus IX-X). We have traced afferents to laryngeal motor neurons in male and female frogs using retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase conjugated to wheat germ agglutinin (HRP-WGA). After iontophoretic injection of HRP-WGA into n. IX-X, retrogradely labelled neurons were seen in the contralateral n. IX-X, in rhombencephalic reticular nuclei, and in the pre-trigeminal nucleus of the dorsal tegmental area (DTAM) of both males and females.

publication date

  • December 1985