Stimulation of Aplysia bag cell neurons triggers elevation of cAMP and prolonged secretion of ELH neuropeptide. Using video-enhanced microscopy to track individual organelle movements in bag cell neurons, we find that organelle translocation consists of periods of movement interrupted by stationary episodes. cAMP elevation leads to a 2- to 3-fold enhancement of the average rate of organelle transport in both anterograde and retrograde directions. This effect does not result from alteration of the instantaneous velocity of organelle transport along microtubules, but rather from an increase in the proportion of time individual organelles spend in motion. Biochemical measurements also provided evidence that cAMP elevation promotes ELH peptide translocation from the somata into axons. Enhanced transport of ELH as a result of these effects may contribute to the replenishment of neuropeptide-containing vesicles at release sites during prolonged periods of secretion.