The present study is the first work to evaluate thrombin-, ADP-, and collagen-induced platelet aggregation in laboratory rats receiving alimentation with the parenterally-administered lipid emulsion, Lipofundin-S, in doses sufficient to induce early atherosclerotic changes in the aorta. The aggregometry parameters of percent maximum aggregation, slope, and b2 or b20 almost uniformly indicate that such lipid treatments result in a statistically significant increased sensitivity of the platelets to ADP and collagen, while no change is noted with thrombin as the aggregating agent. By varying the amounts of ADP and collagen during aggregometry, we also demonstrate that the concentrations of these reagents necessary for equivalent platelet aggregation is substantially lower in lipid-infused rats than in controls. We conclude from this study that such lipid infusions can cause increased platelet aggregation, and that these lipids probably act in a synergistic fashion by affecting a variety of components which comprise the atherogenic process and its clinical endpoint. In addition, we believe that this experimental approach is of interest in that infusions of clinically-useful lipid emulsions are easily controlled, while alterations in platelet physiology and aortic structure occur concurrently and rapidly.