Kinesins are microtubule (MT)-based motor proteins that have been identified in every eukaryotic species. Intriguingly, land plants have more than 60 kinesins in their genomes, many more than that in yeasts or animals. However, many of these have not yet been characterized, and their cellular functions are unknown. Here, by using endogenous tagging, we comprehensively determined the localization of 72 kinesins during mitosis in the moss Physcomitrella patens. We found that 43 kinesins are localized to mitotic structures such as kinetochores, spindle MTs, or phragmoplasts, which are MT-based structures formed during cytokinesis. Surprisingly, only one of them showed an identical localization pattern to the animal homolog, and many were enriched at unexpected sites. RNA interference and live-cell microscopy revealed postanaphase roles for kinesin-5 in spindle/phragmoplast organization, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis, which have not been observed in animals. Our study thus provides a list of MT-based motor proteins associated with the cell division machinery in plants. Furthermore, our data challenge the current generalization of determining mitotic kinesin function based solely on studies using yeast and animal cells.