The nature of the forces that move chromosomes in mitosis is beginning to be revealed. The kinetochore, a specialized structure situated at the primary constriction of the chromosome, appears to translocate in both directions along the microtubules of the mitotic spindle. One or more members of the newly described families of microtubule motor molecules may power these movements. Microtubules of the mitotic spindle undergo rapid cycles of assembly and disassembly. These microtubule dynamics may contribute toward generating force and regulating direction in chromosome movement.