A mouse monoclonal antibody, G92.1.2, raised against guinea pig liver transglutaminase (TGase) recognizes an antigen present in primary mouse dermal fibroblasts. A filamentous pattern, bearing remarkable similarity to the vimentin intermediate filament (IF) network, is seen when these cells are fixed and processed for indirect immunofluorescence with the antibody. Double-label immunofluorescence reveals that the antigen reacting with the antibody colocalizes precisely with vimentin IF and that this colocalization is retained after the treatment of fibroblasts with colchicine, which induces a redistribution of the majority of IFs into perinuclear aggregates. These morphological observations are further supported by the finding that the protein reacting with G92.1.2 is retained in IF-enriched cytoskeletal preparations made by using nonionic detergent-containing high ionic strength solutions. Western blots of the IF fraction show that G92.1.2 recognizes a major band of approximately 280 kDa and does not cross react with vimentin. Furthermore, when the antibody is microinjected into live dermal fibroblasts, it causes a collapse of the vimentin IF network in the majority of injected cells. The results suggest that a form of TGase, or a TGase-related antigen, is closely associated with the vimentin IF network of primary cultures of mouse dermal fibroblasts.