Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) interaction with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is one of at least three mechanisms for lymphocyte adhesion to cultured endothelial cells.
Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of cultured umbilical vein and saphenous vein endothelial cells was upregulated between 2.5- and 40-fold by rIL-1, rTNF, LPS and rIFN gamma corresponding to up to 5 X 10(6) sites/cell. Endothelial cell ICAM-1 was a single band of 90 kD in SDS-PAGE. Purified endothelial cell ICAM-1 reconstituted into liposomes and bound to plastic was an excellent substrate for both JY B lymphoblastoid cell and T lymphoblast adhesion. Adhesion to endothelial cell ICAM-1 in planar membranes was blocked completely by monoclonal antibodies to lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) or ICAM-1. Adhesion to artificial membranes was most sensitive to ICAM-1 density within the physiological range found on resting and stimulated endothelial cells. Adhesion of JY B lymphoblastoid cells, normal and genetically LFA-1 deficient T lymphoblasts and resting peripheral blood lymphocytes to endothelial cell monolayers was also assayed. In summary, LFA-1 dependent (60-90% of total adhesion) and LFA-1-independent basal adhesion was observed and the use of both adhesion pathways by different interacting cell pairs was increased by monokine or lipopolysaccharide stimulation of endothelial cells. The LFA-1-dependent adhesion could be further subdivided into an LFA-1/ICAM-1-dependent component which was increased by cytokines and a basal LFA-1-dependent, ICAM-1-independent component which did not appear to be affected by cytokines. We conclude that ICAM-1 is a regulated ligand for lymphocyte-endothelial cell adhesion, but at least two other major adhesion pathways exist.