A polyclonal antibody (C4), raised against the head domain of chicken myosin Va, reacted strongly towards a 65 kDa polypeptide (p65) on Western blots of extracts from squid optic lobes but did not recognize the heavy chain of squid myosin V. This peptide was not recognized by other myosin Va antibodies, nor by an antibody specific for squid myosin V. In an attempt to identify it, p65 was purified from optic lobes of Loligo plei by cationic exchange and reverse phase chromatography. Several peptide sequences were obtained by mass spectroscopy from p65 cut from sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels. BLAST analysis and partial matching with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a Loligo pealei data bank indicated that p65 contains consensus signatures for the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A/B family of RNA-binding proteins. Centrifugation of post mitochondrial extracts from optic lobes on sucrose gradients after treatment with RNase gave biochemical evidence that p65 associates with cytoplasmic RNP complexes in an RNA-dependent manner. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence studies using the C4 antibody showed partial co-labeling with an antibody against squid synaptotagmin in bands within the outer plexiform layer of the optic lobes and at the presynaptic zone of the stellate ganglion. Also, punctate labeling by the C4 antibody was observed within isolated optic lobe synaptosomes. The data indicate that p65 is a novel RNA-binding protein located to the presynaptic terminal within squid neurons and may have a role in synaptic localization of RNA and its translation or processing.