Previous reports suggested that non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCB153 effects on cytochrome P450 3A (Cyp3a) expression in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) gills differed between F0 generation fish from a PCB site (New Bedford Harbor; NBH) and a reference site (Scorton Creek; SC). Here, we examined effects of PCB153, dioxin-like (DL) PCB126, or a mixture of both, on Cyp3a56 mRNA in killifish generations removed from the wild, without environmental PCB exposures. PCB126 effects in liver and gills differed between populations, as expected. Gill Cyp3a56 was not affected by either congener in NBH F2 generation fish, but was induced by PCB153 in SC F1 fish, with females showing a greater response. PCB153 did not affect Cyp3a56 in liver of either population. Results suggest a heritable resistance to NDL-PCBs in killifish from NBH, in addition to that reported for DL PCBs. Induction of Cyp3a56 in gills may be a biomarker of exposure to NDL PCBs in fish populations that are not resistant to PCBs.