The neuronal scaffold protein p140Cap was investigated during hippocampal network formation. p140Cap is present in presynaptic GABAergic terminals and its genetic depletion results in a marked alteration of inhibitory synaptic activity. p140Cap-/- cultured neurons display higher frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) with no changes of their mean amplitude. Consistent with a potential presynaptic alteration of basal GABA release, p140Cap-/- neurons exhibit a larger synaptic vesicle readily releasable pool, without any variation of single GABAA receptor unitary currents and number of postsynaptic channels. Furthermore, p140Cap-/- neurons show a premature and enhanced network synchronization and appear more susceptible to 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in vitro and to kainate-induced seizures in vivo. The hippocampus of p140Cap-/- mice showed a significant increase in the number of both inhibitory synapses and of parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons. Specific deletion of p140Cap in forebrain interneurons resulted in increased susceptibility to in vitro epileptic events and increased inhibitory synaptogenesis, comparable to those observed in p140Cap-/- mice. Altogether, our data demonstrate that p140Cap finely tunes inhibitory synaptogenesis and GABAergic neurotransmission, thus regulating the establishment and maintenance of the proper hippocampal excitatory/inhibitory balance.