Using squid axoplasm as a model system, we have visualized the fast transport of non-filamentous neurofilament protein particles along axonal microtubules. This transport occurs at speeds of 0.5-1.0 microm/second and the majority of neurofilament particles stain with kinesin antibody. These observations demonstrate, for the first time, that fast (0.5-1.0 microm/second) transport of neurofilament proteins occurs along microtubules. In addition, our studies suggest that neurofilament protein can be transported as non-membrane bound, nonfilamentous subunits along axons, and that the transport is kinesin-dependent. Microtubule-based fast transport might therefore provide a mechanism for the distribution and turnover of neurofilament, and perhaps other cytoskeletal proteins, throughout neurons.