Peroxidasin, originally identified in Drosophila, is a member of the myeloperoxidase family with a novel domain structure. It is proposed that peroxidasin is secreted and has functions associated with stabilization of the extracellular matrix. We report the identification of the Xenopus tropicalis orthologue of the peroxidasin gene. We show that the predicted protein sequence of Xenopus peroxidasin shows high sequence identity with the human orthologue and that the exon structure is highly conserved between the two species. We describe the first detailed developmental expression pattern for peroxidasin in a vertebrate species. Maternal expression of Xtpxn is localized to the animal hemisphere where it persists through early cleavage stages. Initial zygotic Xtpxn expression is detected in the developing neural tube and becomes localized to the hindbrain and midbrain. Xtpxn is expressed in the primordium of the pronephric kidney and expression persists in the pronephric tubules and duct throughout development. Potential roles for peroxidasin during early vertebrate development are discussed.