Metagenomics has evolved over the last 3 decades from the analysis of single genes and their apparent diversity in an ecosystem to the provision of complex genetic information relating to whole ecosystems. Metagenomics is a vast subject area in terms of methodology, which encompasses a suite of molecular technologies employed to investigate genomic information from all members of a microbial community. However, the relatively recent developments in high-throughput sequencing platforms have meant that metagenomic can be performed simply by extracting DNA and sequencing it. Here, we outline explicit methodologies for the extraction of metagenomic DNA from marine and sediments/soil environmental samples, the subsequent production and sequencing of large-insert metagenomic libraries, and also shotgun pyrosequencing considerations. We also provide relevant advice on bioinformatic analyses of the complex metagenomic datasets. We hope that the information provided here will be useful to establish the techniques in most reasonably equipped molecular biology laboratories.