Quantum Capacitance-Limited MoS2 Biosensors Enable Remote Label-Free Enzyme Measurements Academic Article uri icon

abstract

  • We have demonstrated atomically thin, quantum capacitance-limited, field-effect transistors (FETs) that enable the detection of pH changes with ~75-fold higher sensitivity (4.4 V/pH) over the Nernst value of 59 mV/pH at room temperature when used as a biosensor. The transistors, which are fabricated from a monolayer of MoS2 with a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) in place of a conventional oxide gate dielectric, exhibit very low intrinsic noise resulting in a pH limit of detection (LOD) of 92x10^-6 at 10 Hz. This high device performance, which is a function of the structure of our device, is achieved by remotely connecting the gate to a pH sensing element allowing the FETs to be reused. Because pH measurements are fundamentally important in biotechnology, the low limit of detection demonstrated here will benefit numerous applications ranging from pharmaceutical manufacturing to clinical diagnostics. As an example, we experimentally quantified the function of the kinase Cdk5, an enzyme implicated in Alzheimer's disease, at concentrations that are 5-fold lower than physiological values, and with sufficient time-resolution to allow the estimation of both steady-state and kinetic parameters in a single experiment. The high sensitivity, low LOD and fast turnaround time of the measurements will allow the development of early diagnostic tools and novel therapeutics to detect and treat neurological conditions years before currently possible.