Mapping birefringence in three dimensions using polarized light field microscopy: the case of the juvenile clamshell. Academic Article uri icon


  • We report methods to generate three-dimensional maps of birefringence, its position and orientation in juvenile shells of the Atlantic hard clamshell (Mercenaria mercenaria). For measuring the retardance and optic axis orientation of curved shell surfaces in three dimensions, we developed enhanced acquisition and processing algorithms and combined results from conventional and light field imaging approaches to reconstruct the three-dimensional shell shape and its anisotropic optical properties. Our work represents the first successful attempt to generate such maps at a spatial resolution of about 2 ?m and angular steps of about 9° in terms of the inclination angles of the optic axis. The maps of clamshell birefringence provide structural insights into the early mineralization during juvenile clamshell development.

publication date

  • September 2018