Optical imaging methods are powerful tools in neuroscience as they can systematically monitor the activity of neuronal populations with high spatiotemporal resolution using calcium or voltage indicators. Moreover, caged compounds and optogenetic actuators enable to optically manipulate neural activity. Among optical methods, computer-generated holography offers an enormous flexibility to sculpt the excitation light in three-dimensions (3D), particularly when combined with two-photon light sources. By projecting holographic light patterns on the sample, the activity of multiple neurons across a 3D brain volume can be simultaneously imaged or optically manipulated with single-cell precision. This flexibility makes two-photon holographic microscopy an ideal all-optical platform to simultaneously read and write activity in neuronal populations in vivo in 3D, a critical ability to dissect the function of neural circuits.