BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion lung injury is doubly important in thoracic surgery because of the associated ventilation damage to 1 lung. In this study we evaluated the cytoprotective effects of sevoflurane in a pulmonary autotransplant model in pigs. METHODS: Twenty Large White pigs undergoing pneumonectomy plus lung autotransplant were divided into 2 10-member groups on the basis of the anesthetic received (propofol or sevoflurane). Proinflammatory mediators, oxidative stress, nitric oxide metabolism, and hemodynamic and blood variables were measured at 5 different time points. RESULTS: There was an increase of oxidative stress markers and proinflammatory mediators in the propofol group, whereas the hemodynamic variables were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that sevoflurane decreased the inflammatory response and oxidative stress in a live ischemia-reperfusion lung model.