The right repeat in Tn5, which encodes protein absolutely required for transposition, is also capable of inhibiting Tn5 transposition. Analysis of Tn5 mutants indicates that the left repeat is defective in supplying the transposition-inhibition function because of the sequence difference between the repeats located at nucleotide 1443; that the transposition-inhibition activity is a function of the quantity of right-repeat protein synthesis; that the smaller of the right-repeat proteins, protein 2, is sufficient for supplying the transposition-inhibition function (but not for the transposase activity); and that the transposition-inhibition function can act in trans, as opposed to the transposase activity, which functions efficiently only in cis. Gene fusion experiments indicate that the transposition-inhibition activity cannot be explained by autogenous regulation of right-repeat protein synthesis. Finally, immunoprecipitation assays of right-repeat protein-lacZ fusion proteins indicate that protein 2 is synthesized in significantly greater amounts than protein 1 in whole cells. This synthetic ratio may ber important with respect to the control of Tn5 transposition.