The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an interconnected network of tubules and sheets. In most tissues of the body, ER tubules have a diameter of ?60?nm. Using new methods for serial-section electron microscopy, a distinct class of very narrow, 20- to 30-nm-diameter tubules were found in neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous system. The narrow tubules appear to be the most abundant form of ER in axons, and are also found interspersed in the cell bodies and dendrites. At the site of branch points, there is a small sheet that has a similarly narrow lumen. The narrowness of the ER is likely to be important for the as yet poorly characterized functions of the axonal ER.