Small subunit rRNA sequences have been determined for 10 of the most clinically important pathogenic species of the yeast genus Candida (including Torulopsis [Candida] glabrata and Yarrowia [Candida] lipolytica) and for Hansenula polymorpha. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences and those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis, and Aspergillus fumigatus indicate that Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. viswanathii form a subgroup within the genus. The remaining significant pathogen, T. glabrata, falls into a second, distinct subgroup and is specifically related to S. cerevisiae and more distantly related to C. kefyr (psuedotropicalis) and K. marxianus var. lactis. The 18S rRNA sequence of Y. lipolytica has evolved rapidly in relation to the other Candida sequences examined and appears to be only distantly related to them. As anticipated, species of several other genera appear to bear specific relationships to members of the genus Candida.