The gene for the type I interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor has been mapped in both mouse and human. In the human genome, a combination of segregation analysis of rodent-human hybrid cells and chromosomal in situ hybridization has placed the gene on the long arm of chromosome 2, at band 2q12. This is near the reported map position of the loci for IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta (2q13----2q21). The murine gene has been mapped by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in interspecific backcrosses to the centromeric end of chromosome 1, in a region that is syntenic to a portion of human chromosome 2. The murine Il-1r1 gene has thus been separated from the IL-1 genes, which lie on murine chromosome 2.