Consideration of Fine-Scale Coastal Oceanography and 3-D Acoustics Effects for the ESME Sound Exposure Model Academic Article uri icon


  • Results and recommendations for evaluating the effects of fine-scale oceanographic scattering and three-dimensional (3-D) acoustic propagation variability on the Effects of Sound on the Marine Environment (ESME) acoustic exposure model are presented. Pertinent acoustic scattering theory is briefly reviewed and ocean sound-speed fluctuation models are discussed. Particular attention is given to the nonlinear and linear components of the ocean internal wave field as a source of sound-speed inhomogeneities. Sound scattering through the mainly isotropic linear internal wave field is presented and new results relating to acoustic scattering by the nonlinear internal wave field in both along and across internal wave wavefront orientations are examined. In many cases, there are noteworthy fine-scale induced intensity biases and fluctuations of order 5-20 dB.

publication date

  • January 2006