Kinetochores are proteinaceous organelles that assemble on centromeric DNA to direct chromosome segregation in all eukaryotes. While many aspects of kinetochore function are conserved, the nature of the chromosomal domain upon which kinetochores assemble varies dramatically between different species. In monocentric eukaryotes, kinetochores assemble on a localized region of each chromosome. In contrast, holocentric species such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have diffuse kinetochores that form along the entire length of their chromosomes. Here, we discuss the nature of chromosome segregation in C. elegans. In addition to reviewing what is known about kinetochore function, chromosome structure, and chromosome movement, we consider the consequences of the specialized holocentric architecture on chromosome segregation.