Spontaneous neuronal activity plays an important role in the development of cortical circuitry, yet its spatio-temporal dynamics are poorly understood. Cajal-Retzius (CR) neurons in developing layer 1 are necessary for correct cortical lamination and are strategically located to coordinate early circuit activity. To characterize the spontaneous activity of CR and other layer 1 neurons during cortical development, we imaged calcium transients in populations of layer 1 neurons in hemispheres and slices from postnatal rat somato-sensory neocortex. The spontaneous activity in layer 1 had complex spatio-temporal patterns. Groups of non-CR cells showed synchronous activations and formed networks of correlated neurons superimposed in the same territory. Correlated activity among non-CR cells was mediated by a depolarizing effect of GABA and was modulated by glutamate, probably released by CR cells. Our findings demonstrate that developing layer 1 can sustain complex patterns of correlated activity and reveal a circuit mechanism that can mediate this patterned activity.