Nondefective Friend murine leukemia virus (MuLV) causes erythroleukemia when injected into newborn NFS mice, while Moloney MuLV causes T-cell lymphoma. Exchange of the Friend virus enhancer region, a sequence of about 180 nucleotides including the direct repeat and a short 3'-adjacent segment, for the corresponding region in Moloney MuLV confers the ability to cause erythroid disease on Moloney MuLV. We have used the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and methylation interference analysis to identify cellular factors which bind to the Friend virus enhancer region and compared these with factors, previously identified, that bind to the Moloney virus direct repeat (N. A. Speck and D. Baltimore, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:1101-1110, 1987). We identified five binding sites for sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins in the Friend virus enhancer region. While some binding sites are present in both the Moloney and Friend virus enhancers, both viruses contain unique sites not present in the other. Although none of the factors identified in this report which bind to these unique sites are present exclusively in T cells or erythroid cells, they bind to three regions of the enhancer shown by genetic analysis to encode disease specificity and thus are candidates to mediate the tissue-specific expression and distinct disease specificities encoded by these virus enhancer elements.