Because the monsoon strongly affects India, there is a clear need for indigenous expertise in advancing the science that underlies monsoon prediction. The safety of marine transport in the tropics relies on accurate atmospheric and ocean environment predictions on weekly and longer time scales in the Indian Ocean. This need to better forecast the monsoon motivates the United States to advance basic research and support training of early career US scientists in tropical oceanography. Earlier Indian field campaigns and modeling studies indicated that an improved understanding of the interactions between the upper ocean and the atmosphere in the Bay of Bengal at finer spatial and temporal scales could lead to improved intraseasonal monsoon forecasts. The joint US Air-Sea Interactions Regional Initiative (ASIRI) and the Indian Ocean Mixing and Monsoon (OMM) program studied these interactions, resulting in scientific advances described by articles in this special issue of Oceanography. In addition to these scientific advances, and while also developing long-lasting collaborations and building indigenous Indian capability, a key component of these programs is training early career scientists from India and the United States. Training has been focusing on fine-scale and mixing studies of the upper ocean, air-sea interactions, and marine mammal research. Advanced methods in instrumentation, autonomous robotic platforms, experimental design, data analysis, and modeling have been emphasized. Students and scientists from India and the United States at all levels have been participating in joint cruises on Indian and US research vessels and in training participants in modern tools and methods at summer schools, at focused research workshops, and during research visits. Such activities are building new indigenous capability in India, training a new cadre of US scientists well versed in monsoon air-sea interaction, and forging strong links between Indian and US oceanographic institutions.