On the width of a ray. Academic Article uri icon


  • Consistent with earlier work by Kravtsov and Orlov, a simple general expression for the width of a Fresnel zone deltar(F) in a smooth inhomogeneous environment is derived; this is the diffractive contribution to the width of a ray. In a stratified environment at long range, the general Fresnel zone width expression is shown to reduce approximately to one that is proportional to [equation in text] where alpha is the ray stability parameter, sigma is the acoustic frequency, r is the range from the source to the field point of interest, and R is the source to receiver range. In a stratified environment on which a weak small-scale perturbation is superimposed, deterministic rays in the background environment that connect fixed end points break up into bundles of micromultipaths at moderate to long range and a second, scattering-induced, contribution deltar(s) to the width of a ray must be considered. It is shown that deltar(s) is proportional to /alpha/r(R-r) and argued that in a micromultipathing environment the total effective width of a background ray is deltar(tot)= [equation in text] . Theoretical predictions are shown to agree well with travel-time sensitivity kernel calculations.

publication date

  • September 2007