Open Science not only means the openness of various resources involved in a scientific study but also the connections among those resources that demonstrate the origin, or provenance, of a scientific finding or derived dataset. In this chapter, the authors used the PROV Ontology, a community standard for representing and exchanging machine-readable provenance information in the Semantic Web, and extended it for capturing provenance in the IPython Notebook, a software platform that enables transparent workflows. The developed work was used in conjunction with scientists' workflows in the Ecosystem Assessment Program of the U.S. NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center. This work provides a pathway towards formal, well-annotated provenance in an electronic notebook. Not only will the use of such technologies and standards facilitate the verifiability and reproducibility of ecosystem assessments, their use will also provide solid support for Open Science at the interface of science and ecosystem management for sustainable marine ecosystems.