We quantified elemental signatures in statoliths of 718 Patagonian longfin squid (Loligo gahi) collected in the vicinity of the Falkland Islands (southwest Atlantic) and at sites on the Patagonian Shelf and coastal Peru. All squid were assigned to a spawning cohort by size, spawning condition, and back-calculated spawning date based on daily increments in statoliths. The remaining statolith was then analyzed for six elemental ratios (Mg/Ca, Mn/Ca, Sr/Ca, Cd/Ca, Ba/Ca, and Pb/Ca) using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Elemental concentrations in the statoliths were broadly similar to other biogenic aragonites. Differences in Sr/Ca ratios in statoliths among geographic locations were generally consistent with a negative correlation between Sr/Ca and temperature. Variations in statolith Cd/Ca and Ba/Ca values confirmed that during winter months, the squid were foraging deeper in the water column. Both Mg/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios in statoliths decreased with squid size, probably corresponding to a decrease in the contribution of the organic component of the statolith. Elemental signatures in the statoliths of L. gahi varied significantly geographically and between spring- and autumn-spawned cohorts, which must therefore have spent significant portions of their life histories in different environments.