The deep-sea shrimp Oplophorus gracilirostris secretes a luciferase that catalyzes the oxidation of coelenterazine to emit blue light. The luciferase (M(r) approx. 106000) was found to be a complex composed of 35 kDa and 19 kDa proteins, and the cDNAs encoding these two proteins were cloned. The expression of the cDNAs in bacterial and mammalian cells indicated that the 19 kDa protein, not the 35 kDa protein, is capable of catalyzing the luminescent oxidation of coelenterazine. The primary sequence of the 35 kDa protein revealed a typical leucine-rich repeat sequence, whereas the catalytic 19 kDa protein shared no homology with any known luciferases including various imidazopyrazinone luciferases.