A luminous millipede. Luminodesmus sequoiae, emits light centered at a wavelength of 500 nm. To determine the light emitter of this bioluminescent system, fluorescent compounds were isolated from pulverized cuticles. NMR and MS spectra of these compounds showed them to be pterin derivatives. Furthermore, proton/deuterium (H/D) exchange experiments by ESI-Q-TOF-MS and -MS/MS measurements have proved to be a powerful tool for elucidating these heteroaromatic compounds. Finally, we have concluded that 7,8-dihydropterin-6-carboxylic acid, a new natural product, is the light emitter of Luminodesmus bioluminescence.