Cytochrome P450 genes (CYP) constitute a superfamily with members known from the Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. The CYP3 gene family includes the CYP3A and CYP3B subfamilies. Members of the CYP3A subfamily represent the dominant CYP forms expressed in the digestive and respiratory tracts of vertebrates. The CYP3A enzymes metabolize a wide variety of chemically diverse lipophilic organic compounds. To understand vertebrate CYP3 diversity better, we determined the killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) CYP3A30 and CYP3A56 and the ball python (Python regius) CYP3A42 sequences. We performed phylogenetic analyses of 45 vertebrate CYP3 amino acid sequences using a Bayesian approach. Our analyses indicate that teleost, diapsid, and mammalian CYP3A genes have undergone independent diversification and that the ancestral vertebrate genome contained a single CYP3A gene. Most CYP3A diversity is the product of recent gene duplication events. There is strong support for placement of the guinea pig CYP3A genes within the rodent CYP3A diversification. The rat, mouse, and hamster CYP3A genes are mixed among several rodent CYP3A subclades, indicative of a complex history involving speciation and gene duplication.